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在以太坊中,大部分的业务场景对智能合约的要求都是部署一次,但也有些场景,需要根据不同情况动态部署合约,比如在交易所中,为每个用户部署一个充提合约。对于第二种情况,往往需要方便并且低成本去生成和部署合约。类似编程中常见的工厂模式,不需要关系的对象的具体创建逻辑,只需要根据暴露的接口就可以创建出想要的对象。solidity也有类似的工厂,分为普通工厂和克隆工厂。

一、普通工厂

普通工厂,就是在工厂合约中以new的方式创建一个新合约。我这里以MetaCoin合约示例,合约代码如下所示。

pragma solidity ^0.5.0;

contract MetaCoin {
 mapping (address => uint) balances;

 constructor(address metaCoinOwner, uint256 initialBalance) public {
  balances[metaCoinOwner] = initialBalance;
 }

 function sendCoin(address receiver, uint amount) public returns(bool sufficient) {
  if (balances[msg.sender] < amount) return false;
  balances[msg.sender] -= amount;
  balances[receiver] += amount;
  return true;
 }

 function getBalance(address addr) view public returns(uint) {
       return balances[addr];
 }
}

contract MetaCoinFactory {
    MetaCoin[] public metaCoinAddresses;
    event MetaCoinCreated(MetaCoin metaCoin);

    address private metaCoinOwner;

    constructor(address _metaCoinOwner ) public {
        metaCoinOwner = _metaCoinOwner ;
    }

    function createMetaCoin(uint256 initialBalance) external {
        MetaCoin metaCoin = new MetaCoin(metaCoinOwner, initialBalance);

        metaCoinAddresses.push(metaCoin);
        emit MetaCoinCreated(metaCoin);
    }

    function getMetaCoins() external view returns (MetaCoin[] memory) {
        return metaCoinAddresses;
    }
}

在MetaCoinFactory工厂合约中, createMetaCoin方法中使用new创建MetaCoin新合约,并将得到的合约地址存储在metaCoinAddresses数组中。这种方式的优点就是简单,通过工厂部署的合约是一个独立的合约,相关的交易信息在浏览器上可查。缺点就是手续费太高。

二、克隆工厂

如果每次部署的合约都一样,那就没必要对合约的字节码重新部署,耗费手续费。基于这一思想,以太坊提出了EIP1167,最小代理合约,底层根据delegatecall,将克隆出来的合约调用都委派到一个已知的固定合约地址中。

先来看一个例子,还是以MetaCoin为例,这里方便演示,我把多个合约合并到了一个文件中,合约代码如下所示。

pragma solidity ^0.5.0;

contract MetaCoinClonable {
 mapping (address => uint) balances;
    
    function initialize(address metaCoinOwner, uint256 initialBalance) public {
        balances[metaCoinOwner] = initialBalance;
    }
    
 function sendCoin(address receiver, uint amount) public returns(bool sufficient) {
  if (balances[msg.sender] < amount) return false;
  balances[msg.sender] -= amount;
  balances[receiver] += amount;
  return true;
 }

 function getBalance(address addr) view public returns(uint) {
       return balances[addr];
 }
}

contract Ownable {
  /**
   * @dev Event to show ownership has been transferred
   * @param previousOwner representing the address of the previous owner
   * @param newOwner representing the address of the new owner
   */
  event OwnershipTransferred(address previousOwner, address newOwner);

  // Owner of the contract
  address private _owner;

  /**
   * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
   */
  modifier onlyOwner() {
    require(msg.sender == owner());
    _;
  }

  /**
   * @dev The constructor sets the original owner of the contract to the sender account.
   */
  constructor() public {
    setOwner(msg.sender);
  }

  /**
   * @dev Tells the address of the owner
   * @return the address of the owner
   */
  function owner() public view returns (address) {
    return _owner;
  }

  /**
   * @dev Sets a new owner address
   */
  function setOwner(address newOwner) internal {
    _owner = newOwner;
  }

  /**
   * @dev Allows the current owner to transfer control of the contract to a newOwner.
   * @param newOwner The address to transfer ownership to.
   */
  function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public onlyOwner {
    require(newOwner != address(0));
    emit OwnershipTransferred(owner(), newOwner);
    setOwner(newOwner);
  }
}

// https://github.com/optionality/clone-factory/blob/master/contracts/CloneFactory.sol
contract CloneFactory {
  function createClone(address target) internal returns (address result) {
    bytes20 targetBytes = bytes20(target);
    assembly {
      let clone := mload(0x40)
      mstore(clone, 0x3d602d80600a3d3981f3363d3d373d3d3d363d73000000000000000000000000)
      mstore(add(clone, 0x14), targetBytes)
      mstore(add(clone, 0x28), 0x5af43d82803e903d91602b57fd5bf30000000000000000000000000000000000)
      result := create(0, clone, 0x37)
    }
  }

  function isClone(address target, address query) internal view returns (bool result) {
    bytes20 targetBytes = bytes20(target);
    assembly {
      let clone := mload(0x40)
      mstore(clone, 0x363d3d373d3d3d363d7300000000000000000000000000000000000000000000)
      mstore(add(clone, 0xa), targetBytes)
      mstore(add(clone, 0x1e), 0x5af43d82803e903d91602b57fd5bf30000000000000000000000000000000000)

      let other := add(clone, 0x40)
      extcodecopy(query, other, 0, 0x2d)
      result := and(
        eq(mload(clone), mload(other)),
        eq(mload(add(clone, 0xd)), mload(add(other, 0xd)))
      )
    }
  }

}

contract MetaCoinCloneFactory is CloneFactory, Ownable {
    MetaCoinClonable[] public metaCoinAddresses;
    event MetaCoinCreated(MetaCoinClonable metaCoin);

    address public libraryAddress;
    address public metaCoinOwner;

    function setLibraryAddress(address _libraryAddress) external onlyOwner {
        libraryAddress = _libraryAddress;
    }

    function createMetaCoin(address _metaCoinOwner, uint256 initialBalance) external {
        MetaCoinClonable metaCoin = MetaCoinClonable(
            createClone(libraryAddress)
        );
        metaCoin.initialize(_metaCoinOwner, initialBalance);

        metaCoinAddresses.push(metaCoin);
        emit MetaCoinCreated(metaCoin);
    }

    function getMetaCoins() external view returns (MetaCoinClonable[] memory) {
        return metaCoinAddresses;
    }
}

部署流程:

1. 先部署MetaCoinClonable合约,得到地址如0x692a70d2e424a56d2c6c27aa97d1a86395877b3a
2. 部署MetaCoinCloneFactory合约,得到地址如0xbbf289d846208c16edc8474705c748aff07732db
3. 调用setLibraryAddress方法,参数为MetaCoinClonable的合约地址。
4. 调用createMetaCoin方法,创建MetaCoin新合约。
5. 调用getMetaCoins方法,可获取已创建的MetaCoin合约地址,如得到一个地址0xe5240103E1Ff986A2C8aE6B6728FFe0d9a395C59

6. 使用MetaCoin合约地址0xe5240103E1Ff986A2C8aE6B6728FFe0d9a395C59调用MetaCoinClonable合约的getBalance方法,即可得到对应地址初始化时的数量,如下图所示。

基本原理

克隆工厂核心是CloneFactory合约,在createClone方法中,使用solidity的内联汇编(assembly)来克隆合约。

· let clone := mload(0x40)在 Solidity 中,内存插槽 0x40 位置是比较特殊的,它包含了下一个可用的空闲内存指针的值。每次将变量直接保存到内存时,都应通过查询 0x40 位置的值,来确定变量保存在内存的位置。

· mstore(clone, 0x3d602d80600a3d3981f3363d3d373d3d3d363d73000000000000000000000000),这句的意思是将0x3d...的保存在了clone指针指向的位置。

· mstore(add(clone, 0x14), targetBytes),将clone的指针向后移动0x14(20)个字节,在保存targetBytes(20字节)的值。我们上边部署MetaCoinClonable合约,得到targetBytes的值是0x692a70d2e424a56d2c6c27aa97d1a86395877b3a,此时clone指向的空间存储的内容为0x3d602d80600a3d3981f3363d3d373d3d3d363d73+692a70d2e424a56d2c6c27aa97d1a86395877b3a

· mstore(add(clone, 0x28), 0x5af43d82803e903d91602b57fd5bf30000000000000000000000000000000000),将clone的指针向后移动0x28(40)个字节,然后存证0x5af43...的值,此时clone指向的空间存储的内容为0x3d602d80600a3d3981f3363d3d373d3d3d363d73+692a70d2e424a56d2c6c27aa97d1a86395877b3a+5af43d82803e903d91602b57fd5bf30000000000000000000000000000000000

· result := create(0, clone, 0x37),create操作码的功能是根据指定的合约字节码创建新合约,并返回合约地址。第一个参数0代表发送的以太币个数;第二个参数clone指合约字节码的起始位置;0x37(55)指合约字节码的终止位置。新合约的字节码就是0x3d602d80600a3d3981f3363d3d373d3d3d363d73692a70d2e424a56d2c6c27aa97d1a86395877b3a5af43d82803e903d91602b57fd5bf3。可以通过eth_getCode获取我们上边得到的克隆出来的合约0xe5240103E1Ff986A2C8aE6B6728FFe0d9a395C59的字节码比对,是一样的。

在合约字节码中3d602d80600a3d3981f3是EIP-1167标准克隆协议部署的一部分,固定不变。其余对应的EVM操作码如下图所示。

使用这种有以下需要注意的地方:

· 被克隆的合约不能有构造函数,MetaCoinClonable合约使用initialize方法替代了构造函数。
· 克隆工厂MetaCoinCloneFactory合约中的母合约libraryAddress可以被替换,替换后之前已克隆出的合约不受影响,新克隆合约将以新的母合约克隆。
· 用于克隆的母合约如果销毁了,则克隆出的合约将不可用。

三、参考

https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1167 https://github.com/optionality/clone-factory/issues/10 https://soliditydeveloper.com/clonefactory

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